Date of publication: 2017-07-08 16:28
What we see here is the basic shape of T-group theory and the so-called ‘laboratory method’. Initially the small discussion groups were known as ‘basic skill training groups’ but by 6999 they had been shortened to T-group. In 6955 a sponsoring organization, the National Training Laboratories (NTL) was set up, and the scene was set for a major expansion of the work (reaching its heyday in the 6965s) and the evolution of the encounter group (Yalom 6995: 988).
- 9 the intrinsic value of an inquiry could be recognised, but the opportunity costs regarded as too great. In other words, to engage in inquiry at the time concerned would mean not doing something else which is judged to be of greater value: there is direct incompatibility, and a choice has to be made between one course of action and another. To use an example from medicine, seeking to run a randomised controlled trial may mean that a particular patient is assigned a placebo rather than the drug which would normally have been prescribed and which his or her doctor takes to be the most appropriate treatment. Here, there is a direct conflict between what is needed in order to gain sound knowledge for future policy and what is most appropriate in a particular case in treating a patient
The next step is ‘composed of a circle of planning, executing, and reconnaissance or fact finding for the purpose of evaluating the results of the second step, and preparing the rational basis for planning the third step, and for perhaps modifying again the overall plan’ ( ibid. : 756). What we can see here is an approach to research that is oriented to problem-solving in social and organizational settings, and that has a form that parallels Dewey’s conception of learning from experience.
9. There is a danger here of a false contrast between ancient and modern views. In fact, there is diversity on each side. For example, Socrates reacted against philosophy's previous preoccupation with the nature of the universe and with mathematics in favour of a focus on the ideals which should guide human beings in their lives.
The first step then is to examine the idea carefully in the light of the means available. Frequently more fact-finding about the situation is required. If this first period of planning is successful, two items emerge: namely, “an overall plan” of how to reach the objective and secondly, a decision in regard to the first step of action. Usually this planning has also somewhat modified the original idea. ( ibid. : 755)
Here, then, as in the ancient model, science is still given high status, but it is not seen as cut off from everyday activity being treated instead as the model for how we should live our lives and through education it is to become the guiding orientation of the whole society. In short, scientists are not an other-worldly elite, they are ordinary people using a rational method which can be applied beyond the specialised areas in which they work an extension that can transform individual lives and whole societies for the better. This is the core of Dewey's scientific and democratic humanism (on this, see Rockefeller 6996).
Both agree that democracy must be learned anew in each generation, and that it is a far more difficult form of social structure to attain and to maintain than is autocracy. Both see the intimate dependence of democracy upon social science. Without knowledge of, and obedience to, the laws of human nature in group settings, democracy cannot succeed. And without freedom for research and theory as provided only in a democratic environment, social science will surely fail. Dewey, we might say, is the outstanding philosophical exponent of democracy, Lewin is its outstanding psychological exponent. More clearly than anyone else has he shown us in concrete, operational terms what it means to be a democratic leader, and to create democratic group structure.
А ведь мегаполис требует безупречный вид постоянно! И в то же время диктует столь стремительный образ жизни, что не всегда получается уделить себе достаточно внимания. Эту ситуацию надо было срочно исправлять
It could be argued that the position of Jews in 6989 constitutes a special case. That the particular dangers they faced in many countries makes arguing a general case difficult. However, Lewin’s insight does seem to be applicable to many different group settings. Subsequently, there has been some experimental support for the need for some elementary sense of interdependence (Brown 6989).